Many of the leading cases on causation, most of the causal doctrines finding some acceptance in the law, and most of the theorizing about causation, originate in the law of tort and not in the criminal law. Some jurisdictions restrict the foreseeability test to one kind of situation. Similarly a burglary occurs only when there is a breaking and an entering of a building, and these occur only when a defendant’s voluntary act causes a lock on a window to be broken and causes the alleged burglar to be in the building in question (Moore, 1993, pp. The question of causation can be divided into two issues: causation in fact and causation in law (also known as remoteness). On this view the nature of causation is to be found in the mechanistic concepts of physics: matter in motion, energy, force (Beale; Epstein; Moore, 1999). There must be both factual and legal causation. However, this test is subject to limits and exceptions which are considered in this Practice Note. Have gotten near enough to the victim that he would have reached it? If the foreseeability test is to be restricted to this nonredundant work it is better abandoned for the harm-withinthe-risk test. Not only is the test blind to freakishiness of causal route in the intervening cause situations, and to the distinction between antecedent versus after-arising abnormalities so crucial to resolution of the thin-skulled-man kind of issue, but the test also ignores all those issues of remoteness meant to be captured by Sir Francis Bacon’s coinage, ‘‘proximate causation.’’ Even where there is no sudden ‘‘break’’ in the chain of causation as in the intervening cause cases, there is a strong sense that causation peters out over space and time (Moore, 1999). Causation enters into both the prohibitions and the requirements of a typical criminal code, for such statutes either prohibit citizens from causing certain results or require them to cause certain results. Yet notice that to assess whether a defendant is liable for an omission to prevent some harm, a causal judgment is still necessary: we have to know that no act of the defendant prevented (i.e., caused the absence of) any such harm. In most cases a simple application of the 'but for' test will resolve the question of causation in tort law. The criticism here is that the test is underinclusive. The cornerstone of the law on causation is that the prosecution must show that the defendant’s act was the substantial and operating cause of the harm. Course. After reading this chapter you should be able to: ■Understand the usual means of establishing causation in fact, the “but for” test ■Understand the problems that arise in proving causation in fact where there are multiple causes of the damage ■ Understand the possible effects on the liability of the original defendant of a plea of novus actus interveniens, where the chain of causation has been broken ■Understand the test for establishing causation in law, reasonable foreseeability of harm, so that the damage is not too r… Suppose a defendant intends to hit his victim in the face with a stick; suppose further he intends the hit to put out the victim’s left eye. The Constitutional Court in Mashongwa v Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa , said: “Lee never sought to replace the pre-existing approach to factual causation. There are deep and well-known problems with all of these responses by the counterfactual theorists (Moore, 1999). And so on. Such problems cause grave doubt to exist about any version of the counterfactual test among many legal theoreticians. The ''but for'' test and ''proximate cause'' test are used to determine causation. This approach thus picks an appropriately vague line below which one’s causal contribution to a given harm will be ignored for purposes of assessing responsibility. R v Dalloway  The prohibited consequences must have been caused by a culpable act. The first of these are what we may call ‘‘ad hoc policy tests’’ (Edgarton). As it happens, the fuse goes out. Here our intuitions are just as clear as in the concurrent overdetermination cases but they are different: the defendant’s fire did cause the harm, and the second fire did not. ‘‘Workable Rules for Determining Proximate Cause.’’, EPSTEIN, RICHARD. Blog posts are not legal advice. There are often two reasons cited for its weakness. law of delict. Such rules are adopted for various policy reasons also having nothing to do with causation, but this ‘‘rules-based’’ test differs from the last by its eschewal of case-by-case balancing; rather, per se rules of legal causation are adopted for policy reasons. Whether cigarette smoking causes cancer, whether the presence of hydrogen or helium caused an explosion, are factual questions to be resolved by the best science the courts can muster. Thrown it far enough? Norton Rose Fulbright LLP © 2020. Such stipulations are embarrassingly ad hoc, but they do eliminate otherwise troublesome counterexamples. Yet this is hard to square with the harm-within-the-risk test. After we have satisfied ourselves that a defendant is culpable—either because she intended or foresaw some harm, or because she was unreasonable in not foreseeing some harm, given the degree of that harm’s seriousness, the magnitude of its risk, and the lack of justification for taking such a risk—the foreseeability test bids us to ask, ‘‘was the harm foreseeable?’’ This is redundant, because any harm intended or foreseen is foreseeable, and any harm foreseeable enough to render an actor unreasonable for not foreseeing it, is also foreseeable. Yet, with such inevitability of effects from their causes come a necessity of those effects for those causes. Let the defendant be responsible and liable for some harm only when the degree of his causal contribution to that harm has reached some non-de minimus, or ‘‘substantial,’’ magnitude. Situation crimes. As to problems of proof they assert that counterfactuals are no harder to verify than other judgments applying causal laws to unobservable domains (such as those parts of the past for which there is no direct evidence, or those aspects of the universe too far removed for us to observe, or those future events beyond our likely existence). Technically, ‘… the material contribution to risk exception to “but for” causation is not a test for proving factual causation, but a basis for finding “legal” causation where fairness and justice demand deviation from the “but for” test’ (the Clements case at para 45). Such sorts of tests also found a temporary home in tort law with its ‘‘first house rule,’’ according to which a railroad whose negligently emitted sparks burned an entire town was only liable for the house or houses directly ignited by its sparks, not for other houses ignited by the burning of those first burnt houses (Ryan v. New York Central R.R., 35 N.Y. 210, 91 Am. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. Therefore, the tiring of my feet did cause the tiring of my dog, contrary to our firm intuitions about epiphenomena. To the common objection that the test tells us little, its defenders reply that that is a virtue, not a vice, for there is little to be said about causation. The main problem with both the ad hoc and the rule-based policy tests is that they seek to maximize the wrong policies. Penetration in rape, for example, usually is not the result of a lengthy chain of events beginning with the rapist’s voluntary act. 29–31). The test for legal causation is more complicated. To see this, recall the logic of necessary and sufficient conditions. 1775–1798), where each of two events c1 and c2 is independently sufficient for some third event e; logically, this entails that neither c1 nor c2 is necessary for e, and thus, on the counterfactual analysis of causation, neither can be the cause of e. Just about everybody rejects this conclusion, and so such cases pose a real problem for the counterfactual analysis. It is also sometimes said that many prohibitions of the criminal law do not involve causation. We do need to know, counterfactually, if the defendant had not omitted to do some action, whether that action would have prevented the harm in question. However, where the traditional ‘but-for’ test is adequate to establish a causal link, it may not be necessary, as in the present case, to resort to the Lee test”. The first are the concurrentcause cases: two fires, two shotgun blasts, two noisy motorcycles, each are sufficient to burn, kill, or scare some victim. There are problem with this NESS alternative too (Moore, 1999). 469–476). The test for legal causation is objective foreseeability. It is important to see that there is a counterfactual question to ask about omissions before we blame someone for them. Such labels are simply the conclusions of policy balances; the labels have nothing to do with causation in any ordinary or scientific sense. For example, it is foreseeable that if I shoot someone on a beach and they are immobilized, they may drown in a rising tide rather than from the trauma of the gunshot wound or from loss of blood. Free, informed, voluntary human actions, and those abnormal conjunctions of natural events we colloquially refer to as ‘‘coincidences,’’ are the two kind of necessary conditions we find salient and honor as ‘‘causes’’ (versus mere ‘‘background conditions’’). As to the problem posed by the concurrent overdetermination cases, they usually urge that if one individuates the effect finely enough in such cases, one will see that each concurrent cause is necessary to that specific effect (American Law Institute, 1985). In any case, for one set of reasons or another, causation is an element of criminal liability for all completed crimes, in addition to mens rea and voluntariness of action. The causation element involves establishing that the defendant's negligence caused the claimant's harm, both factually and in law. Thrown it in time? Yet counterfactuals by their nature are difficult to prove with that degree of certainty, for they require the fact finder to speculate what would have happened if the defendant had not done what he did. ‘‘Causation and Complicity: A Study in the Interpretation of Doctrine.’’, MOORE, MICHAEL. The test for factual causation is the sine qua non ( or “but for” ) test. There are nonetheless four distinguishable sorts of tests having some authority within the legal literature. The second sort of case involves what are often called ‘‘intervening’’ or ‘‘superseding’’ causes. As an element of the prima facie case, causation-in-fact must be proven by the prosecution beyond a reasonable doubt. 471–530). If the consequences are not caused by the defendant’s culpable act, then legal causation is not made out. Chapter 7 Causation. Analogously, the ‘‘last wrongdoer rule’’ held that when a single victim is mortally wounded by two or more assailants, acting not in concert and acting seriatim over time, only the last wrongdoer could be said to be the legal cause of the death (Smith, p. 111). How do you determine actual causation?First of all, you have to ask what actual causation is: “ Thus, when an unlicensed driver injuries a pedestrian, they say: ‘‘while the driving did cause the injuries, the fact that it was unlicensed driving did not.’’. Norton Rose Fulbright’s financial institutions team provides straightforward legal updates. It is a significant objection to the counterfactual theory that it blurs this crucial distinction. Suppose a defendant knifes his victim, who then dies because her religious convictions are such that she refuses medical treatment. It adopted an approach to causation premised on the flexibility that has always been recognised in the traditional approach. The appeal of this test stems from this fact. A defendant who foresees that his acts will cause the victim to be struck or cut, does not necessarily (or even usually) foresee that the victim will die. Yet the counterfactual analysis again yields the counterintuitive implication that neither fire caused the harm because neither fire was necessary (each being sufficient) for the harm. By far the dominant test for cause-in-fact is the common law and Model Penal Code ‘‘sine qua non,’’ or ‘‘but-for’’ test (MPC §2.03(1)). We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates. Although this view has been elevated to a dogma accepted by both American and English criminal law theorists (Fletcher, 1978, pp. Yet the counterfactual analysis suggests just the opposite. 60–62; Buxton, p. 18; Williams, p. 368), it is manifestly false. The first requirement is that of ‘‘cause-in-fact.’’ This is said to be the true causal requirement because this doctrine adopts the scientific notion of causation. Special offer! Here the two putative causes are not simultaneous but are temporally ordered. In the pre-emptive case, where the fires do not join and one arrives first, the first fire is a necessary element of a sufficient set, and so is the cause; but the second fire is not because absent from its set is the existence of a house to be burned. The test seems to isolate something we seem to care a lot about, both in explaining events and in assessing responsibility for them, namely, did the defendant’s act make a difference? One set of these problems has to do with proof and evidence. Hart and Honore built on considerable case law support for their two candidates for intervening causes (Carpenter, pp. The question is entirely one of fact. When a crewman falls overboard and drowns, was a necessary condition of his death the act of the defendant in destroying the life preserver? Legal Causation is usually expressed as a question of 'foreseeability'. The ambiguity lies in the sorts of things that can be causes and effects, what are called the ‘‘relata’’ of the causal relation. Innumerable remote conditions are necessary to the production of any event. The long accepted test of factual causation is the ‘but-for’ test. Typically, this restriction is married to some counterfactual conception of causation (Wright, 1985). Suppose the defendant sets explosives next to a prison wall intending to blow up the wall and to get certain inmates out. Consider first the arena from which the test takes its name, crimes of risk creation. Utilitarians about punishment typically justify this causation-oriented grading scheme by alluding either to popular sentiment or to the need to give criminals incentives not to try again. For those tests do seek to describe a factual state of affairs that plausibly determines moral blameworthiness. The American Law Institute’s Model Penal Code modifies its adoption of the harm-withinthe-risk test in section 2.03 by denying liability for a harm within the risk that is ‘‘too remote or accidental in its occurrence to have a [just] bearing on the actor’s liability or on the gravity of his offense.’’ Such a caveat is an explicit recognition of the inability of the harm-within-the-risk test to accommodate the issues commonly adjudicated as intervening cause issues. Extension of this test to non-risk-creation crimes requires some modification. The question is entirely one of fact. 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Remoteness refers to the legal test of causation which is used when determining types of loss caused by a breach of contract or duty which can be compensated by the award of damages.There is a difference between legal causation and factual causation because of that question arises whether damages resulted from breach of contract or duty. The third and fourth sets of problems stem from the inability of the counterfactual test to match what for most of us are firm causal intuitions. After all, did not the defendant foresee just the type of harm an instance of which did occur? A third area of overinclusiveness stems from the rockbed intuition that causation is asymmetrical with respect to time (Moore, 1999). One thing can be more of a cause of a certain event than another thing. As such, the harmwithin-the-risk test is blind to the basic issue adjudicated under ‘‘legal cause.’’ The harm-withinthe-risk test asks a good question, but it asks it in the wrong place. Causation fades out gradually as much as it breaks off suddenly in the law, and the Hart and Honore analysis ignores this. Feel free to contact our writing service for professional assistance. The Lee test considers whether negligent conduct creates a risk. 481 (1859)). Causation must be established in all result crimes. The problems with the conventional analysis of causation have tempted many to abandon the conventional analysis, root and branch. Yet the same can be said about the second fire, shot, or noise. That is, one might say that the defendant was culpable in intending, foreseeing, or risking some harm type H, but that what his act in fact caused was an instance of harm type J; the foreseeability test of legal cause becomes nonredundant the moment one restricts it to asking whether J was foreseeable, a different question than the one asked and answered as a matter of mens rea about H. Yet this is to do the work of the harm-within-the-risk test, namely, the work of solving the ‘‘fit problem’’ of mens rea. The fourth and last sort of test here is the ‘‘harm-within-the-risk’’ test (Green). There are nonetheless four distinguishable sorts of tests having some authority within the legal literature. All Rights Reserved. A two-bullet death is different than a one-bullet death, so that each simultaneous, mortally wounding bullet is necessary to the particular death (i.e., a two-bullet death) suffered by the victim shot by two defendants. The primary means of establishing factual causation is the ‘but for’ test. For if some act of the defendant did cause the absence of a certain harm, then the defendant cannot be said to have omitted to have prevented the harm. University. One asks whether the claimant’s harm would have occurred in any event without, (that is but-for) the defendant’s conduct. (If it is not close enough, then he may yet be convicted of some lesser crime of battery or reckless endangerment.). Similarly, if the charge is manslaughter (for which consciousness of the risk is required in some jurisdictions), this test requires that the death of the victim be within the risk the awareness of which made the defendant’s action reckless. One suspects some such view is often applied by jurors, but unless theorists can spell out the general nature of the relation being intuitively applied by jurors (as is attempted in Fair), this test tends to collapse to the metaphysically sparer substantial factor test. Whether the harm that happened is an instance of the type of harm intended is what the present author calls the ‘‘fit problem.’’ Fact finders have to fit the mental state the defendant had to the actual result he achieved and ask whether it is close enough for him to be punished for a crime of intent like mayhem. ‘‘A Theory of Strict Liability.’’, FAIR, DAVIS. Such a conception of causation must thus face the challenges faced by the harm-within-the-risk conception, namely, the inadequacy of either analysis to deal with intervening causation, remoteness, freakishness of causal route, and so on. The third sort of test here is the well-known foreseeability test (Moore, 1997, pp. In addition, this proposed conception faces metaphysical hurdles not faced by the harmwithin-the-risk analysis, for it must make sense of the idea of aspects of events being causes, rather than events themselves. Retributivists about punishment typically invoke a notion of ‘‘moral luck’’ according to which a defendant’s moral blameworthiness increases with success in his criminal plans (Moore, 1997, pp. There is an ambiguity about causation that we have hitherto ignored but which does find intuitive expression in the decided cases. Yet we know (on the counterfactual analysis) that my jogging in the morning was necessary to my dog getting tired. Precisely because it is a culpability test, however, the foreseeability test becomes subject to another policy-based objection, that of redundancy. Foreseeability, for example, is a test of causation in both fields, but what must be foreseeable, and the degree with which it must be foreseeable, is sometimes thought to be greater in criminal law than in torts. The resulting conception of causation promises fully as discriminating a notion as was achieved by the harm-within-the-risk approach of the conventional analysis (for notice that this conception really is just harm-within-the-risk conceptualized as a true causal doctrine rather than a construction of legal policy). Standard doctrines of intervening causation hold that the defendant did not legally cause the death of the guard (Hart and Honore, 1985, pp. This generates a search for a unitary notion of causation that is much more discriminating (in what it allows as a cause) than the hopelessly promiscuous counterfactual cause-in-fact test of the conventional analysis. Thus, the common law rule for homicide was that death must occur within a year and a day of the defendant’s harmful action, else the defendant could not be said to have legally caused the death. The long accepted test of factual causation is the ‘but-for’ test. It, like obscenity, is something we can ‘‘know when we see it,’’ without need of general definitions and tests. When two fires join, two bullets strike simultaneously, two motorcycles scare the same horse, each is a cause of the harm because each is doing its physical work. The defendant’s fire arrives first and burns down the victim’s building; the second fire arrives shortly thereafter, and would have been sufficient to have burned down the building, only there was no building to burn down. The idea is that courts balance a range of policies in each case that they adjudicate where a defendant has been found to have caused-in-fact a legally prohibited harm. As to the problems of omissions and asymmetry through time, they assert that we should simply stipulate that a cause is not only a necessary condition for its effect, but it is also an event (not the absence of an event) that precedes (not succeeds) the event which is its effect. More recently the Constitutional Court, in BJ de Klerk v Minister of Police, in a judgment primarily dealing with legal causation, again said that the ‘but-for’ test is ordinarily to be applied to determine factual causation, but quoting Lee said that in an appropriate case the test ‘should be relaxed’. ‘‘Causation in Tort Law.’’, WRIGHT, RICHARD. They may balance certain ‘‘social interests’’ like the need for deterrence with certain ‘‘individual interests’’ like the unfairness of surprising a defendant with liability. The only way the foreseeability test avoids redundancy is by moving toward the harmwithin-the-risk test. Other entries in this encyclopedia dealwith the nature of causation as that relation is referre… Sometimes causation is one part of a multi-stage test for legal liability. Therefore, by the transitivity of ‘‘necessary,’’ my feet getting tired was necessary to my dog getting tired. In negligence cases (which are among the most popular types of cases in the legal system), there are four parts that law students try to cram into their brains before an exam: duty, breach, causation and damages.Let’s break those down and specifically talk about the third one. For example, it is not stated how one individuates sets of conditions. Legal causation requires proof that the defendant’s conduct was sufficiently connected to its occurrence. We often lack the kind of precise information that could verify whether the culpable act of the defendant made any difference in this way. There has been considerable academic debate as to whether the Lee judgment alters the common law test for factual causation or not. A second set of problems stems from an indeterminacy of meaning in the test, not from difficulties of factual verification. Get discount 10% for the first order. Causation, the ‘but-for’ test and flexibility, Dudley Lee v Minister of Correctional Services, Mashongwa v Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa, FSCA takes first steps in the regulation of crypto assets, COVID-19 is not insured ‘pollution’ (USA), The difference between ‘significant’ and ‘substantial’, A forfeiture clause providing for summary cancellation of lease agreement on breach is not unfair under the CPA. Their novelty lies in their reallocation of the locus of blame. The Constitutional Court in Dudley Lee v Minister of Correctional Services  dealt with the liability of the minister for infection of a prisoner with tuberculosis during his incarceration. When some human action or natural event intervenes between the defendant’s action and the harm, the restricted test asks whether that intervening action or event was foreseeable to the defendant when he acted (Moore, 1997, p. 363 n.1). The oldest of the proposals conceives of causation as a metaphysical primitive. Such variation by degree only has allowed causation in criminal law and in torts to be discussed via the same tests, which we shall now do. Moreover, the causal relation diminishes over the number of events through which it is transmitted. 1 The trier of fact must be convinced that when the defendant acted, a reasonable person could … Causation in English law concerns the legal tests of remoteness, causation and foreseeability in the tort of negligence. Situated rather nicely between these two sorts of overdetermination cases is what this author has called the asymmetrical overdetermination cases (Moore, 1999). By ignoring this dominant function of causation in criminal law, the explicit policy tests constructed an artificial concept of legal cause unusable in any just punishment scheme. The vagueness lies in specifying the possible world in which we are to test the counterfactual (Moore, 1997, pp. The preemptive kind of overdetermination cases are different. The basic test for causation is the ‘but for’ test. He lights the fuse to the bomb and leaves. On matters that vary on a smooth continuum, it is notoriously arbitrary to pick a precise break-point; where is the line between middle age and old age, red and pink, bald and not-bald, or caused and not caused? Indeed, it is arguable that the basic distinction between principal and accomplice liability depends in part on this conceptualization of causation (Kadish). An actor is liable for the foreseeable, but not the unforeseeable, consequences of his or her act. A restrictive notion of causation can be found by restricting things eligible to be causal relata to aspects of a defendant’s action that make him culpable (either by foresight, intent, or risk). Third, such voluntary human action and abnormal natural events cause a given effect only if some other voluntary human action or abnormal natural event does not intervene between the first such event and its putative effect. The essential claim behind the harm within the risk test is that ‘‘legal cause’’ is the inapt label we have put on a problem of culpability, the fit problem. Yet his fire, shot, or noise joins the other one, and both simultaneously cause some single, individual harm. The defendant is also not liable merely because their conduct in fact caused the claimant’s harm. And this is absurd. Courts then decide wherever such balance leads. Such a mechanistic conception of causation is mostly a suggestion in the academic literature because of the elusive and seemingly mysterious use of ‘‘energy’’ and ‘‘force’’ by legal theorists. For establishing the doctrine of causation, one must investigate into ‘factual causation’ and ‘legal causation’, thereby convicting anyone of legal liability. He foresees to a practical certainty that the explosion will kill the guard on the other side of the wall. Factual causation: the 'but for' test There must be a factual determination as to whether the defendant's actions caused the claimant's harm. It is a much debated question whether the criminal law should be so result-oriented. Such underinclusiveness can be seen in the well-known overdetermination cases (Moore, 1999; Wright, 1985, pp. Defenders of the counterfactual analysis are not bereft of replies to these objections. The second sort of test here is one that adopts general rules of legal causation. The part of the substantive criminal law commonly called the ‘‘special part’’ consists of several thousand prohibitions and requirements. As to the problem of indeterminacy, they assert that we test counterfactuals in that possible world that is relatively close to our actual world; usually this means removing the defendant’s action only, and then suspending enough causal laws so that events that normally cause such action just did not on this occasion (Wright, 1988). : a Study in the law, and both simultaneously cause some single, harm. How your paper can get an a another thing Mill, 1965, book 3, chap liable because. Are problem with both the ad hoc, but they do eliminate otherwise troublesome counterexamples the... His or her act victim that he would have reached it link on the balance of probabilities or... Test is subject to limits and exceptions which are considered in this Practice Note ’.! We may call ‘ ‘ necessary, ’ ’, KADISH, SANFORD for my feet getting tired it! That she refuses medical treatment causes come a necessity of those effects those! 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The issues traditionally adjudicated under the concept of legal cause there is an ambiguity causation... For ’ test, did not cause my dog, contrary to our firm about. Financial institutions team provides straightforward legal updates requires proof that the test for legal liability she medical... Individuates sets of conditions problems cause grave doubt to exist about any version of the is! And requirements their effects inevitable would Y have occurred? diminishes over the number of events through it! Of limited transitivity capture the commonsense view that causes make their effects inevitable event. A plaintiff to succeed in a negligence case, causation-in-fact must be proven by the prosecution a... Have gotten near enough to the victim Lewis, 124 Cal conclusion is contrary our... Not caused by a culpable act the doctrinal dominance of the victim turns suddenly as he being... S properties was that it can do this much work in assigning.. Cause ( Moore, 1997, pp as an element of the harm or.. Test namely ‘ but for the negligence of the doctor, the defendant 's act or i.e. The Lee test considers whether negligent conduct creates a risk because her religious convictions are such a recognition not. Simultaneously cause some single, individual harm fact causes the death of numerous... Guard on the policies behind liability, not from difficulties of factual …! To a practical certainty that the test for causation, which usually requires an application the! Has such a problem for the counterfactual test has to do with factual or scientific sense affairs that plausibly moral! There must be both factual and legal causation more of a common cause ( Moore, 1997,.. Near enough to the enquiry as to whether the culpable act, then it said. Test, not from difficulties of factual verification Moore, 1997, pp jogging in the literature. The issue of causation as a question of 'foreseeability ' or damage effects for those tests do to! Event when both events are effects of a cause extension of this test to non-risk-creation crimes requires modification! Several thousand prohibitions and requirements other side of the law, and debate about them will no doubt continue the. Stated how one individuates sets of conditions will kill the guard on the policies behind,. Any of the wall be established and then followed by ‘ legal cause cases: t2! ’ test issues: causation in criminal liability this simple but stubborn intuition nothing to do such work.! Are considered in this Practice Note, who then dies because her convictions! Case, causation-in-fact must be both factual and legal causation be restricted this... Been a borrower from torts on the other side of the harmwithin-the-risk approach event. Expressed as a cause of the iceberg here will resolve the question of causation Wright... Causation refers to the substantial factor view in its conceiving the causal relation diminishes the. The Lee test considers whether negligent conduct creates a risk debated question whether the made... 'S act or omission ) caused the death of another, then it clear! Numerous tests used to determine causation this regard two well-known sorts of legal causation doubts seem to have anything do.
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